‘DiskFiltration,’ a covert channel which facilitates the leakage of data from an air-gapped compute via acoustic signals emitted from its hard disk drive (HDD). Our method is unique in that, unlike other acoustic covert channels, it doesn’t require the presence of speakers or audio hardware in the air-gapped computer. A malware installed on a compromised machine can generate acoustic emissions at specific audio frequencies by controlling the movements of the HDD’s actuator arm. Digital Information can be modulated over the acoustic signals and then be picked up by a nearby receiver (e.g., smartphone, smartwatch, laptop, etc.)

Source: [1608.03431] DiskFiltration: Data Exfiltration from Speakerless Air-Gapped Computers via Covert Hard Drive Noise

Doesn’t work for SSDs 🙂